A brief architecture comparison of Layer 1 blockchains

Quick Take

  • Most next-generation Layer 1 blockchains scale with a parallel architecture, where transaction processing is split between multiple environments
  • Depending on how security is handled for cross-chain (blockchain or shard) communication, this is referred to as sharding or interoperability
  • The challenge with sharded ecosystems is that they break composability — smart contracts can’t call each other synchronously unless they live on the same shard or blockchain

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